Satyanarayana Puja is usually performed every Pournami (Full Moon) or before/after performing auspicious ceremonies such as Grihapravesh or Marriage.
The significance and complete procedure of this ritual has been given by Lord Maha Vishnu himself. Two most important things in this ritual are, listening to the story of Lord Satyanarayana and accepting the prasada made for the ritual.
Satyanarayana Vrata Mahima is the name of the story which is explained during the ritual and consists of five chapters.
Lord Satyanarayana is invoked in a pot and a picture, along with several deities such as Ashta Dik Palakas (Indra, Agni, Yama, Niruruthi, Varuna, Vayu, Kubera and Ishana) and Navagrahas (Surya [Sun], Chandra [Moon], Angaraka [Mars], Budha [Mercury], Brihaspati [Jupiter], Shukra [Venus], Shani [Saturn], Rahu and Ketu).